Last updated on June 22, 2019
Imagine you floating in space. Quiet and cold, quiet but a bit scary. Suddenly, you feel a traction that is weak at first, but when it pulls you into an open place in the sky, the force becomes stronger. Before you realize this, you have entered a black hole. At the time, Yale University’s Priyamvada Natarajan said: “At that time, the universe began to have a strange effect on you.”
With the release of the first black hole image before, any remaining doubts about the existence of these time-space monsters will be eliminated. But physicists still have a lot of controversy about what happens in the black hole system. So what is your possible fate? All objects exert gravity on each other, but in most cases, this force is quite weak. In the case of black holes, gravity is so strong that nothing – even light – can escape. The black hole is so great that time itself begins to distort. When you fall in, you don’t feel different, but for anyone who looks at you, you seem to be slow.
Along the sewer of this cosmic drain hole, all the photons are pulled to your side, and a dazzling light is swirling around a completely dark hole, as we saw in the photo of the “Event Vision” telescope group. That’s it. There are two weird effects that will affect your final step: the faintly visible darkness will wash your eyes, because the expansion of the black hole seems to be much faster than you think, and the surrounding stars will begin to twist and bend.
This is your last chance to escape. Going forward, you will cross the horizon, which is the line where the black hole is too strong to resist.
Natalajan said: “When you can see the event horizon, you can see the starlight bend around it.” The curved light will wrap around the black hole, but when you accelerate through the point where you can’t return, the gravitational field The intensity will change the nature of the light you can see. If your neck muscles have the power to finally look at your shoulders, all the stars behind you will gather together to form a red dot. At the same time, the tranquility of the outer space will turn dark and you will feel like you are going downhill.
Then your body will suffer amazing damage. The gravitational pull inside the black hole is so fast that it not only crushes you, but also separates every part of your body at different speeds, resulting in a “noodle effect.” If your feet fall first, your ankles will stick out of your knees before your neck is stretched into a string of macaroni, but the difference in time will be small and you may not notice. Natalajan said: “It will happen in the blink of an eye. This may not be the best way to express it, because your eyes will suddenly jump out.”
What happens after the new noodle effect?
A: Stay in place
The laws of thermodynamics are ruthless. Even black holes can’t escape their trial. According to the second law, the entropy or disorder in the universe will never decrease. So when your messy body falls in, the entropy it contains cannot be erased. This must be explained by the increase in the entropy of the black hole itself. But if the black hole has entropy, it must have a temperature, so like any object with temperature, it must radiate heat.
How can radiation escape an inevitable object? In 1974, Stephen Hawking came up with a workaround and invented a radiation that is now named after him.
Hawking radiation does not come out of the heart of the black hole, but consists of particles and their anti-particle twins, which suddenly appear near the horizon. Such particle pairs and anti-particles are always visible everywhere. These subatomic twin brothers are essentially connected, and any change in one will immediately affect the other. In the language of quantum mechanics, they are called entanglement.
Because of this subatomic conspiracy, any antiparticle that falls into a black hole will have a partner particle that survives, radiates and reduces the energy of the black hole. But this leaves us with a worrying consequence: at some point, the black hole will radiate completely and take you away.
This disappearing behavior violates another basic principle of theoretical physics: information cannot disappear. Even if the information is destroyed in one form, just like a book is thrown into the fire and burned, the information remains in the surviving smoke and ashes of the particles – although this form is much harder to read. Physicists rely on this continuity to get information about the past and make predictions about the future. If it disappears out of thin air, all the physics we know will become meaningless.
If a black hole can destroy information, it can destroy all your traces. game over.
B: Wait for the black hole to be released.
Some physicists believe that when a black hole evaporates through Hawking radiation, you can stay in the black hole and then release it in its dying breath. In this way, at least some of your information will not be lost forever, but will be imprisoned for a long time, because the black hole is slowly leaked out and released.
At some point in the distant future, depending on the initial size of the black hole, the event horizon will be so small that even a single wavelength of light can no longer be squeezed in. At this point, the radiation associated with your will will be released, leaving nothing but the empty space in which the black hole used to be.
But this long-lasting hide-and-seek game has a fatal flaw: the black hole cannot determine the speed at which it emits radiation, which is determined by the laws of thermodynamics. The more radiation a thing emits, the less radiation it should get, and the less radiation it gets, the less radiation it can emit. When the black hole becomes small enough to spit out its last meal, nothing will be expelled. The black hole will make a whimper, not a slam, and any traces of your existence will disappear.
C: Look for a white hole exit.
Just as black holes do not allow any objects to escape their gravitational forces, imaginary objects called white holes cannot bring anything together. One idea is that each black hole is connected to a white hole through a tunnel between dimensions called a wormhole. Fall into a black hole and you will eventually be thrown out of the white hole.
However, for Carlo Rovelli of AIX-Marseille University in France, there is a way to do this without even a wormhole. Instead, he believes that each white hole used to be a black hole, which means that in the distant future, when the black hole flips back into a white hole, your will may be spit out. But how did this change happen?
Once a star collapses to form a black hole, the atoms it forms are tightly bound together and begin to be constrained by the laws of quantum physics. This can lead to some strange and counterintuitive phenomena. The most important of these is the so-called quantum tunnel, which says that particles have a small but non-zero chance to go straight through a barrier that could not be penetrated. For the particles falling into the black hole, this means that they can theoretically pass through the “singularity” of the infinite density at their center and then bounce back. “Things that fall inside the black hole reach the center, like a wall, because according to Einstein’s theory, it can’t come back.” Rovelli said, “but quantum theory allows it to ‘tunnel’ and reappear. “”
This creates a scene in which time and space bounce outwards, forming a white hole. For an external observer, this process takes billions of years, but internally, due to the huge gravity of the black hole, time will increase. Rovigli said: “You fall from the center, and the time to rebound from the other side will be a few milliseconds. If we can look inside, you will look like it is frozen.” You may get out of the white hole. .
Congratulations, you found a way to leave the black hole. Maybe you look confused.
As Stephen Hawking pointed out, black holes continually emit radiation. So, if your identity is not destroyed or hidden forever, but is leaked in the form of Hawking radiation? Unfortunately, this actually makes things much more complicated.
Hawking radiation is composed of virtual particles that briefly exist near the event horizon, where one entangled partner particle is sucked in while the other escapes. But if this is the case, quantum mechanics has brought us an unpleasant paradox. We already know that the particles of Hawking radiation and the partner particles they just fell into are entangled. But because Hawking radiation contains information about every particle that has fallen into it (and these particles are entangled with their own radiating particles), any emitted particles must also be entangled with its previous Hawking radiation.
Quantum mechanics does not allow this multi-spouse relationship. The basic principle of a monogamy called entanglement says that particles cannot be entangled with two things at the same time. If your message wants to leave the black hole through Hawking radiation, you need to do something else on it.
In this case, you are trying to violate the laws of quantum physics. You can choose between these three options: break through the fire wall, leak time and space, split the universe.
1. Break through the firewall
One way to get out of the quantum dilemma is to summon a firewall. If this firewall only exists in the event horizon, it will break the entanglement between any disappearing particles outside the black hole and their partners.
The problem is that this obstacle is completely incompatible with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which predicts that the black hole’s event horizon will not feel any different from the surrounding space. According to Einstein, the pull of gravity should always be indistinguishable from the result of acceleration: if you accelerate in space quickly in the rocket, you will feel gravity is pushing you back into your seat. This principle of equivalence should apply on either side of the scope of the event, which means that when you pass through it, you should not notice anything unusual.
But even if we allow the existence of such obstacles, this is not a good way out. If you cross it, you will be blown clean, and the other annoying things will be the same.
2. Spatiotemporal leakage
One idea around black holes is that they connect to a cosmic wormhole that spans dimensions. But if it is not the white hole on the other side, the universe’s pipeline is not so spectacular, what about it?
Leonard Susskind of Stanford University in California and Juan Maldacena of Princeton University conceived a wormhole that branches from black holes in many directions. Come out, just like the root network of a tree. Each tiny pipe is only enough for a single Hawking radiation photon to appear, allowing the black hole to evaporate while avoiding the paradox of firewall and information loss. This information is saved because it leaves the black hole along one of these branches and does not create a firewall because nothing will cross the event horizon. More importantly, because we have eliminated the companion particles, the entangled monogamy never needs to be broken. Win-win!
Unfortunately, there is a problem. According to Aidan Chatwin-Davies of the University of Leuven in Belgium, this process violates the core principle of quantum physics, that is, information cannot be destroyed. If you throw a quantum entity into a black hole, you get thermal radiation, and the information it contains has disappeared from our universe. This is a big cosmic taboo.
You are trying to destroy information protection, but this will never go well. Go back and try again?
3. Split the universe
If our universe is not unique? This is a radical idea, but it is a serious view of the supporters of the multi-world view of quantum mechanics. They say that every time a sub-process occurs, the universe splits, creating a different parallel world for every imaginable future.
This means that when you jump into a black hole, all imaginable results happen on a parallel plane of existence. This means that you seem to violate the basic principles of information conservation, as long as the way you do it is compensated in another universe.
Aidan Chatwina Davis of the University of Leuven in Belgium said that the different branches of the multi-world multiverse are interrelated, which means that your destiny has now crossed multiple versions of the multiverse. You may burn in a firewall, fall out of a white hole, leak into a structure of time and space, or you may not fall into it at all. The laws of physics may collapse in the universe, we can see and interact with them, but in the billions of potential real worlds, the reason is restored.
Congratulations, one of you (possibly) has survived.
You can also try again.
But what if it is not a black hole?
For all these unpleasant black hole scenes: simply re-imagine what a black hole is. In classical physics, there is no way to stop the collection of matter, become a star, and then collapse into a black hole. Gravity will not stop.
String theory. Its starting point is that matter is not composed of elementary particles, but consists of tiny strings. In the gravitational pull of a normal black hole, the strings will be entangled. Samir Mathur of Ohio State University said: “The more energy you put into a system, the bigger the ball of the string. It is never a true black hole. It is composed of strings. Planet-like objects, and the planet does not cause information loss.”
If you fall on such a fuzzy ball, you will still die very badly, but you will not become a part of nothingness, but will become something. First of all, when you approach it, you will feel warm. As you pass through the event horizon and continue to walk toward the huge string, you will be torn, and when you reach the ground, your body will become a string.
When you are absorbed by the string, you begin to spread out on the surface of the black hole, blending with the other strings there. Matur said: “At that time, you will be broken up, you will not live any more. But your strings will vibrate.” Your thoughts and memories have long since disappeared, but those that make you into the universe One of the most bizarre places.